Astr 328 Midterm Exam Questions (2006 edition)

There will be three questions taken from this list. You should plan on spending ~ 2-3 bluebook pages answering each one.
  1. Why do we need to study relatively distant galaxies to get a get a measure of the Hubble constant? Why can't we just use distances to nearby galaxies, where Cepheids give us good distances, to measure H0?
  2. Describe several reasons why high redshift galaxies might look different from galaxies in the local universe.
  3. Describe the "surface brightness fluctuation" technique for finding distances to galaxies. Is this technique better for spirals or ellipticals? Why?
  4. Write down the Friedmann equation, and describe each term. Using the Friedmann equation, derive the following for an Omega=1, Lambda=0 universe.
  5. Explain the test behind the supernova cosmology project, and the recent results from this project.
  6. Describe what we mean by "peaks" in the power spectrum of the microwave background. What causes these peaks, and what do they tell us about the Universe?
  7. Describe how globular cluster ages are determined, and how these ages constrain the cosmological parameters which describe the universe. Be specific!
  8. Describe the four classical tests of cosmology, and what data you might need for each one. Explain which of the tests, if any, are providing good tests of cosmology today.
  9. Describe the Tully-Fisher relationship (including its physical implications). Discuss the data you need to measure H0 with Tully-Fisher, and explain how the cluster incompleteness bias can influence your answer.
  10. Describe the five foundations of modern cosmology.