It will consist of five questions taken from this list. You should plan on spending ~ 2-3 blue book pages answering each one. Remember to always answer with a "what" (i.e., describe the object/effect/concept in question) and a "why" (i.e. explain physically why it behaves the way it does).

Definitions

- "several" = "three or more"
- "sketch" = "a plot with labeled axes"

- Describe the Tully-Fisher relationship (including
its
physical implications). Discuss the data you need to measure H
_{0}with Tully-Fisher, and explain how the cluster incompleteness bias can influence your answer. - Describe and sketch the Press-Schecter
relationship for collapsed dark matter halos. Why does it have the
shape it does? How and why does Press-Schecter evolve with redshift?

- Explain what the Sunyayev-Zeldovich effect is and how it used to measure the Hubble constant.
- Describe Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN).
Observationally, how can we constrain Omega
_{B}from BBN arguments? What is the best estimate for Omega_{B}from these arguments?

- Describe the physics behind the microwave
background, and explain how the CMB constrains models for structure
formation in the universe.

- Why is "classical standard CDM" cosmology (i.e.,
Omega
_{M}=1, Omega_{L}=0) dead? Give me several well described arguments. - How and why does structure form differently under hot dark matter and cold dark matter models?
- Observations suggest that Omega
_{M}~ 0.3. Why couldn't the dark matter be all baryonic? Give several reasons why.

- Explain the Lyman break technique and how we use it to identify high redshift galaxies. Describe the properties of Lyman Break Galaxies.
- Describe qualitatively how structure grows with time in the following sets of universes:
- Omega
_{L}= 0, Omega_{M}increasing from 0.1 - 1.0 - Omega
_{M}= 0.3, Omega_{L}increasing from 0.0 - 0.7 - Describe how we can use peculiar velocities to measure the matter content of the Universe? How do we derive those peculiar velocities? In this context, what is the Great Attractor?
- Describe the five foundations of modern cosmology.

- Why do we currently believe that the cosmological constant (or "dark energy" in general) is real? Give several lines of evidence.
- Describe how globular clusters are age dated, and
how these ages can be used to
constrain cosmological parameters (ie Omega
_{M}, Omega_{L}, H_{0}). Be specific!

- Write down the Friedmann equation and describe
each term. Using the Friedmann equation, derive the following for an
Omega
_{M}=1, Omega_{L}=0 universe: - R(t)
- t(z)
- the current age of the universe
- Describe what the two point correlation function (2pt CF) measures. How is it parameterized for galaxies, and what is the meaning of the different parameters? How do observational effects distort our measurement of the 2pt CF? Describe how different kinds of galaxies are clustered.
- What do we mean by "reionization in the early universe"? How do we measure this, and at what redshift did it happen? What are possible sources of this reionization?
- Describe inflation in the early universe. What are the horizon and flatness problems, and how does inflation solve them?
- It is said that in a universe with cold dark matter (CDM), structure (galaxies and galaxy clusters) grows hierarchically. Describe this process, and explain why the properties of CDM mandate that growth must be hierarchical. Describe how different kinds of galaxies (i.e., spirals and ellipticals) grow with time -- think about and discuss merger trees. Give some observational evidence for this process in the early universe and in our own Milky Way Galaxy.
- Write down the Friedmann equation and describe
each term. In today's "concordance cosmology" (i.e., using the current
best values of the cosmological parameters), show how the scale factor
of the universe will change with time in the far future (longer than a
few more Hubble times). How will large scale structure evolve in the
universe at these late times, and how will our ability to study large
scale structure change? Describe, in general, the evolution of the
universe of the next 10 Hubble times or so.