Odds and Ends

Forming the Asteroid Belt, Kuiper Belt, and Oort Cloud.

As the solar system became more mature, accretion rates slowed as most of the material had been either But there was still a fair amount of debris in the outer solar system (a few AU and greater). Inside of Jupiter's orbit, the solar system is hot enough that these can't be icy, and so we have the asteroids. Further out icy objects are common, and we have the beginnings of the comet population.

Jupiter and the other gas giants eject most of these protocomets into the outskirts of the solar system (how?), forming the Oort cloud. Why are the asteroid belt and Kuiper belt still "in place"?

Minor impacts continued as the last dregs were cleared out of the solar system. The last few major impacts may have been responsible for things such as the tipped rotation axes of Venus and Uranus and the formation of the Earth's Moon. The age of heavy impacts ended approximately 3.8 billion years ago (how do we know
this?) and we are left with the present day solar system (more or less...).

Forming Planetary Satellites

Three ways:
1. Major Prograde Satellites of Jupiter, Saturn, and Uranus
As the gas giants formed, the pulled in gas and dust due to their gravitational attraction. This stuff collapsed into a disk in much the same way that the solar nebula did.

The inner portion of these disks were warmer due to the heat of the forming planet, so we see similar gradients in composition (rock/ice mix) to those in the solar system as a whole.

Tidal forces and orbital resonances shape the orbital properties of the satellite systems.

2. Captured Satellites
Mars's Phobos & Deimos
Many small outer moons of the gas giants

The gravitational fields and/or extended atmospheres of the early planets may have captured passing planetesimals as the solar system finished accreting.

 The outer moons of Jupiter may have formed in accretion families.

3. Collisional origins
The Earth's moon

This scenario would explain the compositional anomolies of the moon (ie low iron content, depletion of volatiles, overabundance of refractories).